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Stonnall people and places
The Royal Oak Photo

by Julian Ward-Davies BA Hons
with Pauline Blakemore
October 2014

In the early 20th century, a photo was taken outside the Royal Oak public house in Upper Stonnall, in which a number of adults and children are depicted (see below).

A copy of it was handed down through the Broadhurst family and then the Blakemore family until it ended up in the hands of Pauline Blakemore. Two names are written on the back of the photo: George Broadhurst and Harriet Broadhurst.

The photo has been purported to record a celebration of the conclusion of the First World War in November 1918. However, we can now prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the month could not have been November and that the year could not have been 1918.

Thus, in this paper, we will attempt to:-

  • determine the month and the year in which the photo was taken
  • determine the exact date on which the photo was taken
  • identify as many of the people as possible
  • determine the special occasion, if any, for which the photo was taken
The Royal Oak photo
The Royal Oak Photo, taken in Main Street, Upper Stonnall, in the early 20th century.

Description

Personnel
The photo shows a total of 34 individuals, including 16 adult males, 3 adult females, 7 young girls, 6 young boys, 1 teenage girl and 1 infant.

These individuals are divided into two groups: on the left, there are 3 boys who seem to have been onlookers and who do not appear to have been intended as part of the subject matter, but who were included in the shot nevertheless. We will return to these boys later.

Everybody else appears to have posed formally and deliberately together. Clearly, the photo-shoot was pre-arranged and everyone in the main group prepared for it, as they all appear to be dressed in their Sunday best.

These people are further divided into sets of one or more individuals, such as the three girls and one boy dressed mainly in white at the front-right and, next to them, the two girls dressed in grey dresses and white hats. We will go through each set one by one.

The person on the right is only half in-shot and a further 2 males are obscured by other people standing between them and the camera. This means, quite obviously, that 3 out of the 34 figures will never be identified.

The location
The photo was quite clearly and recognisably taken outside the Royal Oak in Main Street, Upper Stonnall, the scene having changed but little in the hundred years or so since it was captured in this shot.

The technicalities
The photo is of excellent quality and extremely well-focused at quite high resolution, such that blow-ups of details produce little in the way of blurring or pixellation. This is quite remarkable, considering that the size of the photo is only about 6" x 4".

Depth of field is also excellent, with objects in the background shown very clearly, including the Lower Farm barn and, in the distance, the blacksmith's workshop (demolished about 1954).

This shows that the camera, the film stock, the back-room processing and the printing process that were deployed were absolutely first-rate in every way.

These factors indicate that the work was done by a professional outfit, which was almost certainly a news organisation. This might give us a clue as to what was really going on, pointing to our next item of interest.

The main subject matter
The centrepiece of the photo is the Royal Oak with a newspaper vendor holding up a paper so as to be shown very close to the front door of the pub. This explains the incidental inclusion of the 3 non-participating boys to the left: to arrange for the pub, the vendor and the paper to be centre-shot, with the sun more-or-less behind the camera, the cameraman was obliged to choose an oblique angle which included the boys in the field of view. We will have a little more to say about one of these boys later.

The legend on the vendor's bag is LLOYD NEWS or LLOYDS NEWS and we know that this company was a firm of newsagents operating in the early 20th century.

The event
Clearly, the photo was intended to publicise in some way the Royal Oak, the newspaper and Lloyds News, but this raises several questions. If the event was intended as a publicity shot for the pub, why was the newspaper included? Did the newspaper contain something that was relevant to the pub? Did the newspaper contain something that was relevant to Stonnall and indeed to everyone? Why was the Royal Oak in Stonnall selected as a location for the photo-shoot?

We will try to pin down the event and its surrounding circumstances at the conclusion of this paper.

The newspaper
The title of the newspaper, its headlines and its front page graphic are visible in the photo but, unfortunately, they cannot be read, the resolution not being quite up to it. All we can say with certainty about it is that it was a broadsheet, but almost all newspapers were of that size in those days.

It might have been a local newspaper such as the Lichfield Mercury or the Walsall Observer, but it could just as easily have been a regional or a national newspaper.

We can be fairly certain that a copy of this particular edition exists in an archive. If so, finding it would go a long way to confirming the conclusions set out below and solving this mystery once and for all.

The Royal Oak's history in brief
The premises now known as the Royal Oak began commercial life as a grocery shop at an unknown date, possibly over 200 years ago.

Over the succeeding 50 years or so, the premises transformed into a public house. However, the grocery aspect of the business was not abandoned.

Thus, listed in the 1911 census as publican and grocer, Thomas Jones was the licensee of the Royal Oak for a period leading up to 1913. He married Anne in about 1862 and they had four boys and two girls. Their daughter, Susannah, married William Hopley of Walsall Wood and, when his in-laws ceased operating the business in 1913, he took over the running of the pub.

The year and the month of the photo
The plate above the front door of the pub is legible in the photo and reads line for line:-

WILLIAM HOPLEY
LICENSED RETAILER OF
ALE PORTER & WINES
TO BE CONSUMED ON THE PREMISES
DEALER IN TOBACCO

This informs us that William Hopley was already installed as the licensee by the time the photo was taken and thus the year could not have been any earlier than 1913.

All the figures are fairly lightly dressed and a tree in the background is in leaf. These factors would rule out the month of November and indicate a summer month.

As the men are not at work and the children are not at school, we would suggest that the photo was taken on a Saturday or a Sunday or possibly a bank holiday.

We will try to pin down the exact date of the event at the conclusion of this paper.

The People

We will now identify as many of the figures as possible. Many of the identifiable people are still within living memory. However, for obvious reasons, none of the children in the photo were known as children by any person living in the present day.

This creates a few difficulties that we will try to unentangle as we go along, using as guidance information about the extended Hopley family, information about the Royal Oak's neighbours and information about dates of birth, much of which we can glean from the 1911 census.

Starting from the left of the main group of people:-

Elizabeth 'Bessie' White
Beyond any doubt, Bessie White (b 1901) is the girl dressed, appropriately enough, in white by the window of the pub. She was Gordon Mycock's aunt and she was known in her middle and old age to various other Old Stonnall people such as Pauline Blakemore. Also, we have several other photos of her from different times of her life.

The Whites were near neighbours to the pub. She might have been included in the photo for that reason or possibly because she worked at the pub in some capacity, although we have no information to confirm that.

Bessie appears to be about 12 or 13 years of age in the photo and this would seem to place the year as 1913 or 1914.

Bessie would go on to marry Bert Wright and they lived in the so-called Mural House (demolished in the 1960s) in Main Street.

George Broadhurst and Harriet Broadhurst
Broadhurst family tradition informs us that George Broadhurst is the young man sitting on the pavement clutching the little girl who was, in fact, his sister Harriet Broadhurst (b 1911).

Harriet appears to be about 2 or 3 years old in the photo, likely placing the year as 1913 or 1914. The Broadhursts were near-neighbours to the pub.

George had a brother, Jim, who joined the Royal Field Artillery in April 1916 and was killed in action on March 21, 1918, at St Quentin. He is commemorated on the war memorial in St Peter's Church.

Alfred 'Alf' Hopley
We believe that, based on apparent age, small stature and resemblance, Alf Hopley (b 1896) is the young man in the cloth cap standing to the left the newspaper. He worked in the pub for a time and also helped to run a haulage business, no doubt in association with his uncles, the Jones brothers (see below). He is noted as having been a sidesman at the church in the 1930s.

Alf is standing near to his brother...

William Henry Hopley Jnr
We believe that, based on other photographic evidence at our disposal, William Henry Hopley Jnr (b 1892) is the young man standing immediately behind the newspaper. William joined the Royal Navy in June 1917 and was based at Cromarty, Scotland. He served as an able seaman on board HMS Theresa Boyle which was, in fact, a requisitioned trawler engaged in mine-sweeping operations in the Murray Firth. Later in life, he returned to Stonnall living in the council house next to the school. This proved to be very convenient because he worked as the school caretaker until his retirement.

William is standing near to his father...

William 'Bill' Hopley
We are 100% certain that Bill Hopley (b 1869) is the figure with the moustache standing next to the newspaper vendor and in front of one of the pub's windows. It is clear that he is, as it were, highlighted in this photo.

From this, we can guess that the remaining figures in the photo represent his wider family, some pub employees and certain of his immediate neighbours and friends. These latter two categories might have consisted of some of the pub's regular customers of the time.

The two girls with white hats
Based on their apparent ages, we are certain that these two girls are sisters Agnes 'Aggie' Hopley (b 1902) and Esther 'Tet' Hopley (b 1901), but we are not sure which is which.

Tet married William Broadhurst (Jim Broadhurst's brother) and Agnes married Joe Ensor. The Ensors went on to occupy one of the 1938 council houses in Cartersfield Lane, where Aggie lived into old age.

The three ladies and the men standing behind them
There are three ladies standing together. Based on other photographic evidence we have, we are certain that the older person standing in the centre of the group is Susannah Hopley (née Jones, b 1872), Bill Hopley's wife. There seems to be some sort of familial resemblance shared between Susannah and the woman standing to her right, but we have not yet been able to establish a relationship.

Next to Susannah on the opposite side, we suggested originally that this lady (in the hat) might be Mrs Nutting. The Nuttings lived next door to the pub and their house is still called The Nuttings. Since this article was first published, two very senior members of the Stonnall community, Dot Smith and Iris Hewitt, have confirmed that our provisional identification of this lady as Mrs Nutting is, in fact, correct.

It should be noted here that Mrs Nutting's complexion is very dark, indicating that she had been working in the fields during the summer months, an occupation in which many Stonnall women engaged annually up to the 1970s. This gives us another clue as to the actual time of year when the photo was taken

Susannah had four brothers. They were Edwin Jones, William Jones (b 1880), Samuel Jones (b 1883) and Thomas Jones (b 1886), all of whom having been resident at the Royal Oak, at least for a period during their parents' tenure of the pub and probably on into that of the Hopleys. Were they, as seems likely, standing behind their sister, Susannah? If so, we have only one, rather poor, photographic image with which to make a comparison: that of Edwin Jones. Was he the person with the moustache standing behind Susannah to the right?

Edwin Jones became a captain in the West Riding Ambulance
and served in France during the First World War.

Other than that, as far as the remaining Jones brothers are concerned, it is impossible to put names to faces, unfortunately.

The Royal Oak-based Jones brothers were listed as carters in the 1911 census, thus starting a tradition of a haulage business at the Royal Oak that would last at least another 50 years after this photo was taken.

The four children in white
The key to this set of figures is the girl standing second from the left. We are certain that she is Florence 'Flossie' Hopley. This is because Flossie's face was unfortunately disfigured when her petticoat became enflamed while she was warming herself in front of a coal fire. The girl in this photo appears to have facial damage and so we are confident that she is Flossie. If this is correct, then the boy to her left is her brother George Hopley (b 1908) and the girl to her right is her sister Minnie Hopley (b 1899). We believe that the girl on the right-hand side is another sister, Hilda Hopley (b 1910).

George would go on to get involved in road haulage, no doubt under the influence of his uncles, the Jones brothers. He is remembered for operating a Sentinel steam lorry from the Royal Oak.

Hilda would go on to become a long-serving barmaid in the Royal Oak, working alongside her sister, Emily 'Pem' Hopley (b 1897), who became the licensee following on from Bill Hopley after he retired. Pem is absent from this photo, unfortunately.

We have now identified the boy standing at the rear of this group. He looks like he was about 9 or 10 at the time. Some other photographic evidence that we have and the 1911 census suggest that he is John White (b 1904). He was Bessie White's brother and Gordon Mycock's uncle. His apparent age strongly indicates that the year of the photo was 1913 or 1914.

Absentees
Besides the absence of Pem Hopley, there were two other absentees who were among Bill Hopley's children. They were:-
Daisy Hopley
(b 1912). She is remembered as a domestic at the Old Vicarage in the 1950s. She married one of Bessie White's brothers and lived in Cartersfield Lane in one of the 1938 council houses near her elder sister, Aggie Ensor.
Ethel Hopley (b 1904), who died tragically in childhood.

The man in the cloth cap
Based on age, small stature, resemblance and his identification by several Old Stonnall people, including Jim Mycock (Bessie White's nephew) and George Clarke, we are now very certain that this is Mr Furmston, the village blacksmith, who lived nearby, who might have been a regular customer of the pub and whose workshop can be seen in the distant background. He is noted as having been a sidesman at the church in the 1930s.

As at least three of the Jones brothers were carters, their horses would have needed to be re-shod periodically. It is inconceivable that they were not among Mr Furmston's regular clients.

The boy shading his eyes
Among the boys to the left, we see this lad shading his eyes. Based on resemblance (look at the nose, the chubby face and particularly the mouth) we can say no more than he is quite likely a younger version of the young man on the right, above, in military uniform.

This soldier was George Langley, who had lived in Main Street. He joined the 7th Middlesex Regiment in March 1918 and was sadly killed in action the following August, only 23 days after arriving in France and very near to the end of the war. George is commemorated on the memorial in St Peter's Church.

In Conclusion

The event - what it was not
As we have seen, this event did not occur in 1918. That was impossible.

The event was not a celebration of any kind. We can see that from the demeanour of the crowd.

What was really going on - the clues
There are four big clues that point to what was really going on:-

The mood of the crowd
The mood is sombre and there is not a smile to be seen. This was certainly something to do with...

The presence of the newspaper
The newspaper was carrying a news story that was very, very serious in character.

The year
We have seen, based on circumstantial evidence, that the year of the photo was almost certainly 1914.

The time of year
We have seen also how Mrs Nutting's complexion had been affected by summer weather, indicating that she had probably been working out in the fields between the months of May and August.

We can also say that if we look at the shadows of the people, we can see that they were quite short, indicating that this event took place at around the middle of the year. The summer solstice occurs at around June 21/22.

Thus, we can say that the event took place at a point within a period about 6 weeks either side of the longest day of the year, in other words, probably on a day between May 4 and August 17.

The only major event that would induce the kind of mood we see in the photo took place on August 4, 1914 - and that was Britain's declaration of war - in effect, the beginning of the First World War, which is undoubtedly what the headline of the newspaper was marking in some way.

That is what this photo is all about.

Finally
We could now attempt to determine the exact date of the event.

If the edition of the newspaper followed on in the first week after the declaration of war, the next weekend consisted of Saturday, August 8 and Sunday, August 9, 1914. This is within our projected time slot of a date between May 4 and August 17.

Everyone appears to be dressed in their Sunday best and, while they could have made the necessary effort on a Saturday, we would tend to believe that the people who organised this photo session would have opted for a Sunday as the safest option, as it were.

It is believed, therefore, that this photo was taken on Sunday, August 9, 1914.

Thanks
I am deeply grateful to Pauline Blakemore (a descendant) for the brainstorming sessions needed to help identify these people. I am further indebted to Pauline for additional biographical information and for helping me test my theories.



**********

© Julian Ward-Davies 2014

Design, image editing and programming are the work of the author.

If you have any information, suggestions and/or photographs relating to the subject matter, no matter how trivial, please contact the author by one of the methods shown below.

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